Haviland Crater, a ~15 meter feature located in Kiowa County, Kansas, is best known for its association with the Brenham Pallasite. The small penetration crater is a mechanical excavation funnel associated with sub-hypervelocity impact of the associated pallasite. Haviland differs fundamentally in the physics of its formation compared to larger craters. Contrary to the weird physics and mechanics of hypervelocity impacts and shock wave passage, small excavation pits such as this form in exactly the manner that one might intuitively imagine. An object hits the ground and the surrounding soil and rocks spray outward under ordinary acceleration from the impact energy. The process, very much unlike the process associated with large structures, is essentially the same as one would create by throwing a rock into mud.
This low impact energy, which resulted from the slowing of the inbound meteorite by the atmosphere, is exactly what allowed the meteorite associated with this event to survive.
Evidence of Impact Origin
This is not a hypervelocity impact crater. No diagnostic shock evidence exists. It is included here because it was formed by a meteorite and was found containing fragments of the meteorite.
Other significant evidence: morphology.
Bibliography and References:
(If links to articles don't work, don't give up. Try pasting the link shown into a search engine or searching for the article authors, title, or other reference information. If your research leads you to additional scientific references related to this crater, please help improve this resource by sending a note with the new citation(s) to: firstname.lastname@example.org )
Beauford R. E. 2015. Indicators of impact origin in small terrestrial craters in Phyical Records of Impacts in The Early and Modern Solar System. Published doctoral dissertation (open access), University of Arkansas. Proquest Dissertations and Theses, Publication #3688247, pp: 84-152.
Buchwald V. F. 1975. Handbook of iron meteorites: Their history, distribution, composition, and structure. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Click, K., Snyder, R., Evans, K., and Mickus, K., 2007, Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles of Haviland Crater, Kansas, presented to North-Central GSA meeting, Lawrence, KS.
Evans, K., Click, K., Mickus, K. and Snyder, R., 2007, Ground-penetrating radar imagery of Haviland crater, Kansas: Anatomy of a partially excavated meteorite impact site: to be presented to GSA national meeting, Denver.
Hodge, P. W. 1979. Meteoritic material in the soil near two meteorite craters (abstract). Meteoritics, v. 14, number 2, pp. 422-423.
Hodge, P. W., The location of the site of the Haviland meteorite crater (abstract). Meteoritics, v. 14, pp. 233-234. 1979.
Honda M., Caffee M. W., Miura Y. N., Nagai H., Nagao K., and Nishiizumi K. 2002. Cosmogenic nuclides in the Brenham pallasite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 37:1711-1728.
Hsu, W., Huss, G. R., and Wasserburg, G. J. 1997. Mn-Cr systematics of differentiated meteorites (abstract). 28th Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. p. 609.
Kalinina G. V., Kashkarov L. L., Ivliev A. I, and Skripnik A. Y. 2005. Radiation and shock-thermal parameters of pallasites: resulting from different compaction history? (abstract #1708). 36th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.
Kollar, D.; Masarik, J.; Nishiizumi, K.; Reedy, R. C. 2003. Monte Carlo Simulation of Cosmogenic Nuclide production in The Brenham Pallasite (abstract #1670). 34th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.
Merriam D. F. 2011. Topographic depressions on the High Plains of Western Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science (1903-), Vol. 114, No. 1/2, pp. 69-76.
Merriam D. F. and Harbaugh J. W. 2007. Meteorites and Possible Meteorite Impact Features in Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol. 110, No. 1/2, pp. 61-68.
Monnig O. E. 1948. Some real meteorite finds at Brenham Township, Kiowa County, Kansas. Popular Astronomy, Vol. 56, p.47.
Nininger H. H. 1949. Kansas Meteorite Discoveries 1837-1948. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, Vol. 52, No. 1, pp. 110-112.
Nininger, H. H., and J. D. Figgins. 1933. "The Excavation of a Meteorite Crater Near Haviland, Kiowa County, Kansas." Proceedings of the Colorado Museum of Natural History. 12. No 3, 9-16.
Peck, E., The fate of a Kansas meteorite crater. Sky and Telescope, v. 58, pp. 126-128. 1979.
Plotkin, H. 1999. The Brenham, Kiowa County, Kansas meteorite, in Anni Mirabiles, A Symposium Celebrating the 90th Birthday of Dorrit Hoffleit, edited by Davis Philip A. G., Van Altena W. F., and Upgren A. R., p. 93 - 95.
no link to primary publication found
Revelle, D. O. and Rajan, R. S. 1989. Evaluation of Initial Properties of Iron Meteoroids Using Terrestrial Crater Signatures (abstract). 20th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Abstracts, volume 20, page 896.
Spinsby, J.; Friedrich, H.; Buseck, P. R. 2008. Tomography of the Brenham Pallasite (abstract). 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, p.2128.
Wasson, J. T., Sedwick, S. P. 1969. Possible Sources of Meteoritic Material from Hopewell Indian Burial Mounds. Nature, v. 222, pp. 22-24. 1969.
There are several additional papers concerning the associated meteorite among the archive of annual LPSC conference abstracts: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/publications/absearch/